Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. in Nursing, Associate Professor, Evidence- Based Caring Research Center, Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student of Nursing, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


  Background & Objective: Learning theories focus on individuals way of learning Cognitive learning theory emphasizes the importance of the internal process of the learner and includes several known prospects such as Gestalt data processing or information processing meaningful learning concept mapping exploration methods selfefficacy and selfregulation Each of these perspectives emphasizes a specific aspect of cognition Limited information exists on the processes and approaches used by nursing students in learning The present research was conducted in order to determine the role of cognitive theory in nursing education   Methods: In this study library and search databases [Medline Google Scholar Scientific information database (SID) and Magiran] were search using the keywords learning theory cognitive theory and nursing education All literature published from 2000 to 2013 were selected Subsequently each approach to this theory in nursing education was studied   Results: The key principles of Gestalt in connection with the care and education of patients include mental organization towards simplicity balance and discipline guided by the patients desire and a simple and clear description of the illness Application of information processing theory in nursing education consists of compliance of occupation with mindset and acceptance of and respect for different ways of thinking among people working in the health care environment Concept mapping is a metacognitive strategy for training nursing students on learning methods and exploration method is the factor which increases the confidence of nurses Selfefficacy emphasizes the importance of acquisition and application of knowledge and development and improvement of scientific and professional skills Moreover nursing students with greater achievements are learners who show selfregulation   Conclusion: In the 21st century nursing has undergone numerous changes and nurses are forced to deal with patients with a wider range of pathologies and chronic and underlying diseases For satisfactory performance in such an educational environment nurses require cognitive and metacognitive skills Educational applications of social cognitive learning theory in nursing include model orientation teaching new behaviors and skills encouraging previously learned behaviors directly and indirectly teaching of the prevention of chronic diseases increasing patients independence and effectiveness This study provided valuable knowledge on cognitive theory in nursing education Thus the introduction application and study of this theory in nursing education are recommended


  1. Emerson RJ. Nursing education in the clinical setting. 1st ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2007.
  2. Bastable SB. Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice. 3rd ed. Boston: Jones and bartlet publishers; 2008.
  3. Billings DM, Halstead JA. Teaching in nursing a guide for faculty.3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2009.
  4. Abolhasani Sh, Dostie Irani M, Haqqani F. Application of learning theories in clinical education. Iran J Med Educ. 2012; 11(9): 1290-8. [In Persian]
  5. Hicks-Moore SL. Clinical concept maps in nursing education: An effective way to link theory and practice. N Edu Pract. 2005; 5(6): 348-52.
  6. Hsu L, Hsieh Sl. Concept maps as an assessment tool, in a nursing course. J Prof Nurs. 2005; 21(3):141-9.
  7. Sarhangi F, Masoumi M, Ebadi A, Seyyed Mazhari M, Rahmani A. Comparing the effect of lecture- and concept mapping based learning on cognitive learning levels. Iran J Critical Nurs. 2010; 3(1): 1-2. [In Persian]
  8. Nejat N, Kohestani HR, Rezaie K. Effect of concept mapping on approach to learning among nursing students. Hayat. 2011; 17(2): 22-31. [In Persian]
  9. Saif E. Educational psychology; Psychology of Learning and Teaching]. 5th. Tehran: Agah Co, 2001. [In Persian]
  10. August-Brady MM. The effect of a Meta cognitive intervention on approach to and self-regulation of Learning in baccalaureate nursing students. J Nurs Educ. 2005; 44(7): 297-304.
  11. Haghani F, Rezae H. Concrete application of learning theories in public health. Iran J Med Educ. (Special issue for educational development and health promotion) 2012: 11(9): 8-10. [In Persian]
  12. Saif AA. Modern educational psychology. 6thed. Tehran: Douran; 2009. [In Persian]
  13. Zare H. Psychology of Learning. Tehran: Publishing ostady; 2006. [In Persian]
  14. Hinck SM, Webb P, Sims-Giddens S, Helton C, Hope KL, Utley R, et al. Student learning with Concept mapping of care plans in community-based education. J Prof Nurs. 2006; 22(1): 23-9.
  15. Rahmani A, Fathi A, Mojallal Aghdam, A. Concept mapping and theoretical learning of nursing students. Iran J Nurs. 2005; 17(40): 39-46. [In Persian]
  16. Chen SL, Liang T, Lee ML, Liao IC. Effects of concept map teaching on students' critical thinking and approach to learning and studying. J Nurs Educ. 2011; 50(8):466-9.
  17. Veo P. Concept mapping for applying theory to nursing practice. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2010; 26(1): 17-22.
  18. Hatami J, Mirzaei RA, Abbasi J. Improve the quality of teaching chemistry concepts using concept maps. J Tech Educ. 2010; 3(4): 281-96. [In Persian]
  19. Chambers D, Thiekötter A, Chambers L. "Preparing student nurses for contemporary practice: The case for discovery learning. J Nurs Educ Pract. 2013; 3(9): 106.
  20. Khoshbakht A. New methods of teaching. Tehran: Peshawar Publications Azhar Institute; 2004. [In Persian]
  21. Bandura A. Changing Societies. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1998.
  22. Fereday J, Muir-Cochrane E. The role of performance feedback in the self-assessment of nursing competence: a research study with nursing clinicians. Collegian. 2006; 13(1): 10-5.
  23. Cheraghi F, Hassani P, Riazi H. Correlation study of nursing students’ self-efficacy with clinical performance. Sci J Hamedan Nurs Midwifery Faculty.  2012;  19(1):  35-45.  [In Persian]
  24. Javidi  Kalateh  Jafar  Abady  T.  Cognitive learning  theory  -  Bandura's  social  and educational  implications  of  its  findings.  The first National  Conference  of  Cognitive Science  in  Education.  2012;  (1):  231-53.  [In Persian]
  25. Cheraghi  MA.  Strengthening  meta  cognitive strategies-based  learning  methods  in  critical self-regulation.  Iran  J  Med  Educ.  2003; 3(Suppl  10):  65.  [In  Persian]
  26. Rezai  H,  Haghani  F.  Concrete  application  of learning  theories  in  public  health.  Iran  J  Med Educ.  2012;11(9):  1171-8.  [In  Persian]
  27. Bruner  JS.  The  Act  of  Discovery.  Harvard Educ  Rev. 1961;  31:  21-32.