Document Type: Original Article
Associate Professor of Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, Literature and Humanities Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
A Student of Clinical Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Background: Educational situations greatly affect the mental growth and health of individuals, as well as their psychological resources. Of the psychological resources involved in education, academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, and optimism are noteworthy.
Objectives: The present study aimed at comparing academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, and optimism among professional doctorate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the first- and fifth-year medical, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2018-19 as the statistical population, of whom 266 subjects were selected by simple random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Vallerand academic motivation and the Owen and Froman college academic self-efficacy scales, as well as the life orientation test (Scheier and Carver) questionnaires. MANOVA was used to analyze the data.
Results: Dental students had the highest level of self-efficacy (P=0.007). Also, the mean scores of academic self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and optimism (P = 0.03) were higher among the fifth-year students. On the other hand, in the interaction of the study field with the entry year, self-efficacy was significant (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the academic motivation among the students of different study fields (P = 0.16) and according to the entry years. (P = 0.13)
Conclusion: Dental students choose their field of study with more interest, which further maintains and increases their academic motivation during the seven years of academic education. On the other hand, interest in the field of study is one of the variables influencing the maintenance and increase of the self-efficacy construct over time.
- Elmelid A, Stickley A, Lindblad F, Schwab-Stone M, Henrich CC, Ruchkin V. Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference? J Adolesc. 2015;45:174-82. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.08.003
- Ozer EA, Akgun OE. The effects of irrational beliefs on academic motivation and academic self-efficacy of candidate teachers of computer and instructional technologies education department. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2015; 197:1287-92. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.401
- Chon YV, Shin T. Profile of second language learners' metacognitive awareness and academic motivation for successful listening: A latent class analysis. Learn Individ Differ. 2019; 70:62-75. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2019.01.007
- Williams M, Burden RL. Psychology for Language Teachers: A Social Constructivist Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1997.
- Marsh HW, Craven RG, Hinkley JW, Debus RL. Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor Theory of academic motivation orientations: An evaluation of jingle-jangle fallacies. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2003; 38(2):189-224. doi:10.1207/S15327906MBR3802_3
- Deci EL, Vallerand RJ, Pelletier LG, Ryan RM. Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist. 1991; 26(3-4):325-46. doi:10.1080/00461520.1991.9653137
- Park J, Chung S, An H, Park S, Lee C, Kim SY, et al. A structural model of stress, motivation, and academic performance in medical students. Psychiatry Investig. 2012; 9(2):143–9. doi:10.4306/pi.2013.10.2.143 .
- Clark MH, Middleton SC, Nguyen D, Zwick LK. Mediating relationships between academic motivation, academic integration and academic performance. Learn Individ Differ. 2014;33: 30-8. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.04.007
- Otis N, Grouzet FM, Pelletier LG. Latent motivational change in an academic Setting: A 3-Year longitudinal study. J Educational Psychology. 2005; 97(2): 170. doi:10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
- Garn AC, Matthews MS, Jolly JL. Parental influences on the academic motivation of gifted students: A self-determination theory perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly. 2010;54(4): 263-72. doi:10.1177/0016986210377657
- Jiang Y, Rosenzweig EQ, Gaspard H. An expectancy-value-cost approach in predicting adolescent students’ academic motivation and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2018;54:139-52. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.06.005
- Meens EE, Bakx AW, Klimstra TA, Denissen JJ. The association of identity and motivation with students' academic achievement in higher education. Learn Individ Differ. 2018;64:54-70. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2018.04.006
- Martin AJ, Steinbeck K. The role of puberty in students' academic motivation and achievement. Learn Individ Differ. 2017;53:37-46. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2016.11.003
- Pintrich PR, De Groot EV. Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. J Educational Psychology. 1990;82(1):33. doi:10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
- Jinks J, Lorsbach A. Introduction: Motivation and self-efficacy belief. Reading &Writing Quarterly. 2003;19(2):113-8. doi:10.1080/10573560308218
- Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: WH Freeman; 1997: 604.
- Kawajiri H, Adachi T, Kono Y, Yamada S. Development of a Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Walking in Patients with Mild Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019; 28(2): 317-24. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.09.055 PMID:30389375
- Falk-Brynhildsen K, Jaensson M, Gillespie BM, Nilsson U. Swedish Operating Room Nurses and Nurse Anesthetists' Perceptions of Competence and Self-Efficacy. J Perianesth Nurs. 2019;34(4):842-850. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2018.09.015
- Farajpour A, Arshadi H, Homam M, Asadi TS, Mohamadi E, Musavi NS. A Comparative Study of Self-efficacy and Self-esteem among Students of Islamic Azad University of Medical Science Mashhad Branch. Future of Medical Eduction J. 2014;4(1-2):17-21.
- Bortolon C, Yazbek H, Norton J, Capdevielle D, Raffard S. The contribution of optimism and hallucinations to grandiose delusions in individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2019; 210:203-6. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2018.12.037 .
- Hinkle CE, Quiton RL. Higher Dispositional Optimism Predicts Lower Pain Reduction During Conditioned Pain Modulation. J Pain. 2019; 20(2):161-70. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2018.08.006 PMID:30219728
- Carver CS, Scheier MF. Dispositional optimism. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014;18(6):293-9. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.02.003
- Carver CS, Scheier MF, Segerstrom SC. Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30(7):879-89. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006
- Abdollahi D. Association of Educational Planning with Mental Health of Nursing Students of Tehran Medical Science University with Emphasis on the Educational Stressor Factors and Stress Management Methods. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2016; 4(1): 40-9 .[In Persian] doi:10.18869/acadpub.ihepsaj.4.1.40
- Ghanavati E, Kazemi M, Salehi J. Comparison of psychological disorders among medical and non-medical students at different educational levels. J Adv Med Biomed Res. 2012; 20(78): 90-9. [In Persian]
- Nabavi SJ. Surveying mental health status of new students of medical branch, Islamic Azad University using MMPI inventory in 2006-2007 educational year. Medical Sciences. 2012;21(4):292-7. [In Persian]
- Rakhsh F, Movahedi F. The search needs of the first and last semester students of the faculty of medical management and information and sciences of the Isfahan University in 2006. Health Information Management. 2007;4(2):237. [In Persian]
- Kosgeroglu N, Acat MB, Ayranci U, Ozabaci N, Erkal S. An investigation on nursing, midwifery and health care students’ learning motivation in Turkey. Nurse Educ Pract. 2009;9(5):331-9. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2008.07.003
- Fardashari S, Pourshahr H, Shokri O, Fathabadi J. Relationship between Optimism and Psychological Distress for University Students: The Mediating Role of Perceived Academic Control. Studies in Learning & Instruction. 2018; 9(2): 2-73.
- Vallerand RJ, Pelletier LG, Blais MR, Briere NM, Senecal C, Vallieres EF. The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and psychological measurement. 1992;52(4):1003-17. doi:10.1177/0013164492052004025
- Weisani M, Lavasani M., Ejei M. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Statistic Anxiety Through Academic Motivation and Statistic Learning. Journal of Psychology. 2016;16(2):142-60.
- Owen S V, Froman R D. Development of a College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale. 1998.
- Saadat, S., Asghari, F., &Jazayeri, R. The relationship between academic self-efficacy with perceived stress, coping strategies and perceived social support among students of University of Guilan. Iran J Med Educ. 2015;15:67-78. [In Persian]
- Scheier MF, Carver CS, Bridges MW. Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994;67(6):1063-78. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523 PMID:7815302
- Hassanshahi MM. The Relationship between Optimism and Coping Strategies in University Students. J Fundam Ment Health. 2002; 4(15&16): 86-98. [In Persian]
- Fattahi Z, Javadi Y, Nakhaee N. A Survey on Dentistry Students’ Satisfaction with their Discipline and Some of the Related Factors. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2004;1(1):32-40. [In Persian]
- Valizadeh Z, Ahadi H, Heidary M, Mazaheri MM, Kajbaf MB. The Structural Relationship of Perfectionism, Selfefficacy, Goal Orientation and Interest in the Field of Study, and Academic Procrastination. New Thoughts on Education. 2016;12(2):30-9. [In Persian]
- Hosseini Z, Dadipoor S, Aghamolaei T, Safari-Moradabadi A, Ghanbarnezhad, A. Investigating The Correlation Between Self-Efficacy And Mental Health Of Nurses And Head Nurses. The Journal of Urmia Nurs Midwifery factualty. 2018; 15(12): 921-30. [In Persian]
- Huston-Shaikh, Corina J. (Dissertations). Self-efficacy and competence for clinical skills in nursing education. Mineapolis, USA: Department of Psychology, Capella University; 2015.