Document Type : Original Article
Assistance Professor, Medical Education Department, Educational Developmental Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Background: Teaching is identified as a necessary role and responsibility for junior faculty members in their future careers.
Objectives: The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that a student-as-teacher (SaT) program can effectively prepare the students for their future roles as teachers and educators.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the participants included 143 postgraduate students of 12 doctorate and master’s degree programs at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, who were selected by census method . Nine learning objectives were classified in four competency
domains: (1) adult learning principles; (2) instructional design; (3) teaching and learning processes; and (4) learner’s assessment. The educational methods were based on an active learning approac.
Results: The mean score of learners in the practical assessment was 12.5±3.6 out of 15, and their mean score in the modified essay test was 8.5±1.5 out of 10 after the educational intervention. The results showed that the scores of the learners’ attitude about cooperative learning were significantly different before (2.38±0.31) and after (4.15±0.65) the intervention (P=0.0001). Also, the scores of learners’ capabilities in teaching were significantly different before (2.5±0.61) and after (3.80±0.34) the intervention (P=0.0001). The learners considered their teaching capabilities to be at the level of “familiarity without mastery” and “implementation mastery” before and after the intervention, respectively (P=0.0001).
Conclusion: It is recommended to develop and implement SaT programs to improve the teaching capabilities of students using innovative teaching methods and prepare them for their future roles as instructors and teachers.
- Marušić M, Mimica M, Mihanović F, Janković S. Doctoral degree in health professions: professional needs and legal requirement. Acta Med Acad. 2013;42(1):61-70. doi: 10.5644/ama2006-124.72. [PMID: 23735068].
- Hafler JP. Residents as teachers: A process for training and development. J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):544S-6S. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.2.544S. [PMID: 12566499].
- Blanco MA, Maderer A, Oriel A, Epstein SK. How we launched a developmental student-as-teacher (SAT) program for all medical students. Med Teach. 2014 May;36(5):385-9. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.886770. [PMID: 24527838].
- Kurczek J, Johnson J. The student as teacher: reflections on collaborative learning in a senior seminar. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ. 2014 Mar 15;12(2):A93-9. eCollection Spring 2014. [PMID: 24693265]. [PMCID: PMC3971000].
- Rana J, Sullivan A, Brett M, Weinstein AR, Atkins KM, Group SDW. Defining curricular priorities for student-as-teacher programs: A National Delphi Study. Med Teach. 2018 Mar;40(3):259-266. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1401216. [PMID: 29171329].
- Freret T, Rana J, Schwartzstein RM, Gooding HC. Twelve tips for implementation of "student-as-teacher" programs. Med Teach. 2017 Dec;39(12):1221-1226. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1333591. [PMid:28598708].
- Mann KV, Sutton E, Frank B. Twelve tips for preparing residents as teachers. Med Teach. 2007 May;29(4):301-6. doi: 10.1080/01421590701477431. [PMID: 17786741].
- Bensinger LD, Meah YS, Smith LG. Resident as teacher: the Mount Sinai experience and a review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med. 2005 Sep;72(5):307-11. [PMID: 16184293].
- Post RE, Quattlebaum RG, Benich III JJ. Residents-as-teachers curricula: a critical review. Academic Medicine. 2009;84(3):374-80. Acad Med. 2009 Mar;84(3):374-80. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181971ffe. [PMID: 19240450].
- Martins AR, Arbuckle MR, Rojas AA, Cabaniss DL. Growing Teachers: Using Electives to Teach Senior Residents How to Teach. Acad Psychiatry. Jul-Aug 2010;34(4):291-3. doi: 10.1176/appi.ap.34.4.291. [PMID: 20576990].
- Dewey CM, Coverdale JH, Ismail NJ, Culberson JW, Thompson BM, Patton CS, et al. Residents-as-teachers programs in psychiatry: a systematic review. Can J Psychiatry. 2008 Feb;53(2):77-84. doi: 10.1177/070674370805300202. [PMID: 18357925].
- Mclean M, Cilliers F, Wyk JV. Faculty development: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Med Teach. 2008;30(6):555-84. doi: 10.1080/01421590802109834. [PMID: 18677659].
- Hesketh E, Bagnall G, Buckley E, Friedman M, Goodall E, Harden R, et al. A framework for developing excellence as a clinical educator. Med Educ. 2001 Jun;35(6):555-64. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.00920.x. [PMID: 11380858].
- Molenaar W, Zanting A, Van Beukelen P, De Grave W, Baane J, Bustraan J, et al. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum. Med Teach. 2009 May;31(5):390-6. doi: 10.1080/01421590902845881. [PMID: 19811129].
- Burgess A, McGregor D. Peer teacher training for health professional students: a systematic review of formal programs. BMC Med Educ. 2018 Nov 15;18(1):263. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1356-2. [PMID: 30442139]. [PMCID: PMC6238310].
- Muir F, Bruce J, McConville K. Teaching, reflecting, and learning: The value of an intercalated medical education programme. Med Teach. 2020 May;42(5):523-528. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1708290. [PMID: 31935150].
- Wamsley MA, Julian KA, Wipf JE. A literature review of “resident-as-teacher” curricula. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 May;19(5 Pt 2):574-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30116.x. [PMID: 15109328]. [PMCID: PMC1492323].
- Keshmiri F, Mosayebi A. Teaching Competency Assessment Of PhD Students: Needs Based Assessment Study. Payavard. 2014; 8(4) :332-42. [In Persian]
- Najafi M, Najafi M, Keshmiri F. Gap analysis of skill and educational need`s Ph.D. students in Tehran University of medical science as regards teaching skill. Razi J Med Sci. 2014;21(118):32-42. [In Persian]
- Farhadian F, Tootoonchi M, Changiz T, Haghani F, Oveis Gharan S. Faculty Members' Skills and Educational Needs Concerning Clinical Teaching Methods in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Med Educ. 2007; 7(1):109-18. [In Persian]
- Farzaneh N, Nejadansari D. Students' attitude towards using cooperative learning for teaching reading comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 2014;4(2):287. doi:10.4304/tpls.4.2.287-292
- Moeen-uz-Zafar, Badr-Aljarallah. Evaluation of modified essay questions (MEQ) and multiple choice questions (MCQ) as a tool for assessing the cognitive skills of undergraduate medical students. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2011 Jul; 5(2 Suppl 1): 43–4. [PMID: 23284579]. [PMCID: PMC3533348].
- Harden R, Crosby J. AMEE Guide No. 20: the good teacher is more than a lecturer—the twelve roles of the teacher. Med Teach. 2000;22:334-47. doi:10.1080/014215900409429.
- Tucker C. If medical education was a discipline, she would have five core competencies. Med Teach. 2017 Jul;39(7):783-784. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2016.1270435. [PMID: 28097957].
- Zabar S, Hanley K, Stevens DL, Kalet A, Schwartz MD, Pearlman E, et al. Measuring the competence of residents as teachers. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 May;19(5 Pt 2):530-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30219.x. [PMID: 15109318]. [PMCID: PMC1492315].
- Hill AG, Yu TC, Barrow M, Hattie J. A systematic review of resident-as-teacher programmes. Med Educ. 2009 Dec;43(12):1129-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03523.x. [PMID: 19930503].
- DaRosa D. Residents as teachers: evaluating programs and performance. In: Edwards JC, Friedland JA, Bing-You R, eds. Residents’ Teaching Skills. New York: Springer; 2002:100–14.
- Morrison EH, Shapiro JF, Harthill M. Resident doctors’ understanding of their roles as clinical teachers. Med Educ. 2005 Feb;39(2):137-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.02063.x. [PMID: 15679680].
- Cantillon P, Wood D, Yardley S. ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2017.
- Donovan A. Radiology residents as teachers: current status of teaching skills training in United States residency programs. Acad Radiol. 2010 Jul;17(7):928-33. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2010.03.008. [PMID: 20447842].
- Hosein Nejad H, Bagherabadi M, Sistani A, Dargahi H. Effectiveness of resident as teacher curriculum in preparing emergency medicine residents for their teaching role. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2017 Jan;5(1):21-5. [PMID: 28124018]. [PMCID: PMC5238492].