Document Type : Original Article
Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
School of Nursing and Midwifery, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, Sanandaj, Iran
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Clinical Care Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Background Organ donation requires management to promote awareness and create the proper culture in all societies. Awareness and attitude of students and nursing staff can affect the process of donating organs. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effect of blended education on the awareness and attitude of nursing students towards organ donation. Methods In this clinical trial study, which used a Solomon four-group design, 94 undergraduate nursing students from Azad University of Sanandaj in 2016 were selected by the census method and randomly assigned to four groups. The data collection tool included demographic data and the Organ Donation Awareness and Attitude Questionnaire blended education was provided to students through a one-day interactive workshop and social networks for 2 weeks. Before and after the intervention, students’ awareness and attitude were evaluated. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using Fisher, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results The comparison of the awareness level after the intervention in the four groups showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the attitude level after the intervention between the four groups (P = 0.02). Conclusions Blended education increases the awareness and attitude of nursing students. Thus, trainers and educators are suggested using blended education to train students regarding donation. Moreover, it is recommended to include the topic of donation in the nurse’s curriculum.
- Yousefy A, Ziaee ES, Ghaljaei F, Azarbarzin M. [Brain Death and transplant organs from the perspective of jurisprudence, ethics and law and its impact on medical education]. Iran J Med Educ. 2012;11(9):1366–75. Persian.
- Alizadeh Taghiabad B, Hasanzadeh F, Rayhani T, Karimi H. [Comparing attitudes of nursing students and students of Islamic sciences regarding organ donation after brain death in Mashhad in 2008]. Modern Care J. 2014;11(1):63–70. Persian.
- Akrami SM, Osati Z, Zahedi F, Raza M. Brain death: Recent ethical and religious considerations in Iran. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(10):2883–7. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.10.046. [PubMed: 15686651].
- Bagheri Chimeh A. [Brain death and organ transplantation in Japan]. Med Ethic Hist Med. 2008; 1(3): 7–14. Persian.
- Abbasi Z, Peyman A. [Brain death and organ donation in Iran]. Medical Law J. 2012;6(20):43–54. Persian.
- Asgar Pour H, Yavuz M. Effects of fever on haemodynamic parameters in neurosurgical intensive care unit patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2014;30(6):325–32. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2014.07.001. [PubMed:25242210].
- Dutra MM, Bonfim TA, Pereira IS, Figueiredo IC, Dutra AM, Lopes AA. Knowledge about transplantation and attitudes toward organ donation: A survey among medical students in northeast Brazil. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(4):818–20. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.03.066. [PubMed:15194282].
- Kececioglu N, Tuncer M, Yucetin L, Akaydin M, Yakupoglu G. Attitudes of religious people in Turkey regarding organ donation and transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000;32(3):629–30. doi: 10.1016/S0041-1345(00)00923-4. [PubMed: 10812145].
- Safarri-Moradabadi A, Madani A, Zare F, Amani F, Dadipoor S. [Awareness and attitude of Bandar Abbas residents towards organ donation]. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2014;2(3):223–31. Persian.
- Chakradhar K, Doshi D, Srikanth Reddy B, Kulkarni S, Padma Reddy M, Sruthi Reddy S. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding organ donation among Indian dental students. Int J Organ Transplant Med. 2016;7(1):28–35. [PubMed: 26889371]. [PubMed Central: PMC4756262].
- Meyer K, Bjork IT. Change of focus: From intensive care towards organ donation. Transpl Int. 2008; 21(2):133–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2007.00583.x. [PubMed: 17944801].
- Lin LM, Lin CC, Lam HD, Chen CL. Increasing the participation of intensive care unit nurses to promote deceased donor organ donation. Transplant Proc. 2010;42(3):716–8. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.022. [PubMed: 20430155].
- Nunnink L, Cook DA. Palliative ICU beds for potential organ donors:An effective use of resources based on quality-adjusted life-years gained. Crit Care Resusc. 2016;18(1):37–42. [PubMed: 26947414].
- Coyle MA. Meeting the needs of the family: The role of the specialist nurse in the management of brain death. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2000;16(1):45–50. doi: 10.1054/iccn.1999.1469. [PubMed:10790714].
- Kim JR, Fisher MJ, Elliott D. Undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes towards organ donation in Korea: Implications for education. Nurse Educ Today. 2006;26(6):465–74. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2006.01.003. [PubMed: 16540211].
- Collins TJ. Organ and tissue donation: A survey of nurse’s knowledge and educational needs in an adult ITU. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2005;21(4):226–33. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2004.10.006. [PubMed:16039960].
- Besser A, Amir M, Barkan S. Who signs an organ transplant donor card? A study of personality and individual differences in a sample of Israeli university students. Pers Individ Dif. 2004;36(7):1709–23. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.012.
- Akgun HS, Bilgin N, Tokalak I, Kut A, Haberal M. Organ donation: A cross-sectional survey of the knowledge and personal views of Turkish health care professionals. Transplant Proc. 2003;35(4):1273–5. doi:10.1016/S0041-1345(03)00437-8. [PubMed: 12826135].
- Egnor SG. Creating a hospital-based certification program for organ donation management. Proceedings of the 26th International Nursing Research Congress. 2016 Sep 23; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2016.
- Manzari Z, Masoumian Hoseini ST, Karimi Moonaghi H, Behnam Vashani H, Khaleghi I. [Comparing the effect of two educationalmethods (context based learning and lecture) on nurse’s knowledge, attitude and practice about nurse’s role in organ donation process]. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2015; 13(9): 758–71. Persian.
- El-Shoubaki H, Bener A. Public knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation: A cross-cultural study. Transplant Proc.2005;37(5):1993–7. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.03.014. [PubMed:15964321].
- Ohwaki K, Yano E, Shirouzu M, Kobayashi A, Nakagomi T, Tamura A. Factors associated with attitude and hypothetical behaviour regarding brain death and organ transplantation: Comparison between medical and other university students. Clin Transplant.2006;20(4):416–22. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2006.00494.x. [PubMed:16842515].
- Mahdiyoun SA, Imanipour M, Mojtahedzadeh R, Hosseini AF. [Comparison of effectiveness of interactive and non-interactive virtual education about brain death and organ transplantation on knowledge and satisfaction of critical care nurses]. Hayat. 2015;21(2):40–53. Persian.
- Azmandian J, Shokouhi M, Poorhoseini SS, Mirzaei MR. [Study of education effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes about organ donation at the time of brain death]. Iran J Crit Care Nurs. 2013;6(1):11–20.Persian.
- Garrison DR, Kanuka H. Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Internet High Educ. 2004;7(2):95–105. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.02.001.
- Tol A, Pardel Shahri M, Esmaelee Shahmirzadi S, Mohebbi B, Javadinia S. [Effect of blended education program on anxiety among orthopedic patient’s surgery]. J Nurs Educ. 2013;2(3):1–8. Persian.
- Khaledi S, Moridi G, Shafeian M, Gharibi FA. [Comparison between the lecture method and the three combination participatory method of teaching and learning on nursing students’ sustainable learning]. Dena J. 2012;6(1-2):1–11. Persian.
- Abbasi DZ, Faraahani B, Fesharaki M, Najafizadeh K. [Effect of education about brain death and organ donation on attitude and knowledge of nursing students]. Iran J Crit Care Nurs. 2010;3(3):109–12. Persian.
- Arjomand B, Gentlemen HR, Jafarian A, Shabanzadeh AR, Jalali F, Jebelifar S. [A survey on knowledge and attitude of nurses in emergency and specialized care units in the area of transplantation of organ and materials]. J Med C Iran. 1999;26(3):348–95. Persian.
- Wood M, Kerr JC, Ross-Kerr J. Basic steps in planning nursing research: From question to proposal. 7th ed. Massachusetts, US: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2010.
- Polit DF, Beck CT. Essentials of nursing research. Methods, appraisal and utilization. 2006.
- Haji-Ghaderi A, Ghajjhi K. [Knowledge and attitude of Gorgan university students about organ donation]. Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of Student Research of West of Iran. 2017 Feb 23-24; Dezful, Iran. 2017. p.6–14. Persian.
- Kiviniemi MT. Effects of a blended learning approach on student outcomes in a graduate-level public health course. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:47. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-47. [PubMed: 24612923]. [PubMed Central: PMC3975233].
- Masoumian Hoseini ST, Manzari Z, Khaleghi I. ICU nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their role in the organ donation process from brain-dead patients and factors influencing it in Iran. Int J Organ Transplant Med. 2015;6(3):105–13. [PubMed: 26306156]. [PubMed Central: PMC4545304].
- Tam WW, Suen LK, Chan HY. Knowledge, attitudes and commitment toward organ donation among nursing students in Hong Kong. Transplant Proc. 2012;44(5):1196–200. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.01.108. [PubMed: 22663983].