Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Business Management Department, Baft Higher Education Center, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Background Electronic learning (e-learning), as a tool for the acquisition of knowledge, is rapidly expanding and evolving, but in order to employ such a project, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and make the right decision, organizations and institutions should carefully analyze the degree of their readiness. Objectives Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the readiness of Kerman University of Medical Sciences for e-learning implementation from the viewpoint of faculty members and ranking the identified factors. Methods The present survey was conducted on 402 faculty members at Kerman University of Medical Sciences as the statistical population; however, a total of 196 subjects were selected using Morgan table and stratified random sampling. Data were collected by a questionnaire measuring the readiness of university based on four factors. The viewpoint of eight experts as well as fuzzy preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) was used to rank the factors. Results All the studied factors, except human resources, had good status and overall readiness of Kerman University of Medical Sciences was at a good level. In addition, ranking of the factors revealed that human resources were the most important factor to assess readiness for e-learning implementation at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Conclusions According to the viewpoint of faculty members, Kerman University of Medical Sciences is ready for e-learning implementation and no significant difference was found between the academic rank and academic department of faculty members and their attitudes toward e-learning.


  1. Alsabawy AY, Cater-Steel A, Soar J. Determinants of perceived usefulness of e-learning systems. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;64:843–58. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.065.
  2. Islam AKMN. E-learning system use and its outcomes: Moderating role of perceived compatibility. Telematics Inf. 2016;33(1):48–55. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2015.06.010.
  3. Alhabeeb A, Rowley J. Critical success factors for eLearning in Saudi Arabian universities. Int J Educ Manage. 2017;31(2):131–47. doi:10.1108/ijem-01-2016-0006.
  4. Romiszowski A. How is the e-learning baby? Educ Technol.2004;44(1):5–27.
  5. Safavi AA. Developing countries and e-learning program development. J Global Inf Technol Manage. 2014;11(3):47–64. doi:10.1080/1097198x.2008.10856473.
  6. Global Industry Analaysts. E-learning- market analysis trends & forecasts. 2016, [cited 2017 Jun 1]. Available from:
  7. Aparicio M, Bacao F, Oliveira T. Grit in the path to e-learning success. Comput Hum Behav. 2017; 66: 388–99. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.10.009.
  8. Chen CM, Lee HM, Chen YH. Personalized e-learning system using Item Response theory. Comput Educ. 2005;44(3):237–55. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2004.01.006.
  9. Shultz H, Fogarty J.Online learning today: Strategies that work. San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler; 2002.
  10. Means B, Toyama Y, Murphy R, Bakia M, Jones K. Evaluation of evidencebased practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education;2009.
  11. Abdel-Gawad T, Woollard J. Critical success factors for implementing classless e-learning systems in the Egyptian higher education. Instruct Technol. 2015;12(4):29.
  12. Al-Gahtani SS. Empirical investigation of e-learning acceptance and assimilation: A structural equation model. Applied Computing and Informatics. 2016;12(1):27–50. doi: 10.1016/j.aci.2014.09.001.
  13. Aydın CH, Tasci D. Measuring readiness for e-learning: Reflections from an emerging country. J Educ Tech Soc. 2005;8(4):244–57.
  14. Red ER, Borlongan HGS, Briagas TT, Mendoza MJM. An assessment of the elearning readiness state of faculty members and students at Malayan Colleges Laguna. Facilities. 2013;1:5–8.
  15. Clark RC, Mayer RE. E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2016.
  16. Azimi HM. Readiness for implementation of e-learning in colleges of education. J Novel Appl Sci. 2013; 2(12):769–75.
  17. Guglielmino PJ, Guglielmino L. Are your learners ready for e-learning. The AMA handbook of e-learning. New York: American Management Association; 2003.
  18. Watkins R, Corry M. E-learning companion: Student’s guide to online success. New York: Houghton Mifflin; 2013.
  19. Haney D. Assessing organizational readiness for e-learning: 70 questions to ask. Perform Improv. 2002;41(4):10–5. doi:10.1002/pfi.4140410404.
  20. Rosenberg MJ. The e-learning readiness survey: 20 key strategic questions you and your organization must answer about the sustainability of your e-learning efforts. Retrieved July. 2000;25:2005.
  21. Panda S, Mishra S. E-learning in a Mega Open University: Faculty attitude, barriers and motivators. Educ Media Int. 2007;44(4):323–38. doi:10.1080/09523980701680854.
  22. Jacobs R, Washington C. Employee development and organizational performance: A review of literature and directions for future research. Hum Resour Develop Int. 2003;6(3):343–54. doi:10.1080/13678860110096211.
  23. Rogers M. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. Newyork, NY: Free Prees;2003.
  24. Kamalian AR, Fazel A. The examination of prerequisites and evaluation of facilities of Electronic Learning system. J Technol Educ. 2009;4(1):13–28.
  25. Brans JP, Vincke PH, Mareschal B. How to select and how to rank projects: The PROMETHEE method. Eur J Oper Res. 1986;24(2):228–38.
  26. Ho CY. Applying fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making for evaluating ERP system development methods and implementation strategies. Kaohsiung City, Taiwan: Institute of Information Management. IShou University; 2006.
  27. Gul M, Celik E, Gumus AT, Guneri AF. A fuzzy logic based PROMETHEE method for material selection problems. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci. 2018;7(1):68–79. doi: 10.1016/j.bjbas.2017.07.002.
  28. Gholami B. [An appraisal of the role of strategic management tools in strategic human resource planning]. J Res Hum Resour Manage. 2017;9(2):119–42. Persian.