Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 Management and Leadership in Medical Education Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Department of Health Information Sciences, Faculty of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background: The group discussion method is one of the student-centered and active teaching methods in which learners actively participate in educational activities using discussion, and they are given the opportunity to share their opinions and experiences with others.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the effects of the group discussion method and the lecture method on health workers’ knowledge and attitudes.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 70 health workers working in Baft, Kerman province, were selected by census method and divided into two groups of 35 people. Asthma-related educational content was presented for one group as a lecture and the other as a group discussion. Before and after the intervention, health workers’ knowledge and attitudes scores were evaluated and compared using a researcher-made questionnaire.
Results: The mean age of participants was 38 ± 2.7 years. After the intervention, the mean score of attitude was 65.86 ± 6 in the lecture group and 68.66 ± 4.7 in the group discussion group, indicating a significant difference (p = 0.04). The mean score of knowledge after the intervention was 11.4 ± 1.66 in the lecture group and 11.28 ± 1.6 in the group discussion group, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.77). In both groups, the mean scores of knowledge and attitude increased significantly after the intervention (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The results showed that education affected the increase of health workers’ knowledge and attitudes in both groups. Also, the group discussion method had a greater effect on increasing the attitude of individuals compared to the lecture method; however, this effect was not significant for knowledge. Therefore, it can be concluded that for the training of health workers, it is better to use integrated teaching methods to create deep and efficient learning as well as positive attitude and motivation.


  1. Monzavi A, Sadighpour L, Jafari S, Saleh N, Kharazi Fard MJ. Viewpoints of Clinical Dentistry Students on the Factors Affecting the Quality of Lectures in Theoretical Courses. Iran J Med Educ. 2012;11(7):832-41. [In Persian]
  2. Safari M, Yazdanpanah B, Ghafarian HR, Yazdanpanah S. Comparing the Effect of Lecture and Discussion Methods on Students` Learning and Satisfaction. Iran J Med Educ. 2006; 6(1):59-64. [In Persian]
  3. Neville AJ, Norman GR. PBL in the undergraduate MD program at McMaster University: three iterations in three decades. Acad Med. 2007 Apr;82(4):370-4. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318033385d. [PMID: 17414193].
  4. Azizifar SN, Hosseinpour M. The Effect of Group Discussion and Lecture Teaching Methods on Students' Academic Performance in Pedagogical Curriculum. Educational Development of Judishapur. 2020. 11(Suppl): 1-10. [In Persian]
  5. Zhao B, Potter DD. Comparison of lecture-based learning vs discussion-based learning in undergraduate medical students. J Surg Educ. 2016;73(2):250-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.09.016. [PMID: 26572094].
  6. Sohrabi Z, Aliyari S, Hazrati H, Mansouri M, Habibi H. Compare the Effect of Teaching through Lecture and Debates on Learning and Satisfaction of Nursing Students. Journal of Military Caring Sciences. 2021; 8(2):139-47. [In Persian]
  7. Aghapour SA., Vakili MA, Karbasi M, Badeli R. Comparison the Effect of Student-Based Group Discussion and Lecture Methods Teaching on Midwifery Student's Learning Level. Educ Strategy Med Sci. 2015; 8(5):281-6. [In Persian]
  8. Safari M, Ghahari L. Comparing the Effects of Lecture and Work in Small Groups on Learning of Head and Neck Osteology in Medical Students. Iran J Med Educ. 2011; 11(1):1-6. [In Persian]
  9. VeisKarami HA, Garavand H, NaserianHjiabadi H, Afsharizadeh SE, Montazeri R, Mohammadzade Ghasr A. A Comparative Study of Functions of Thinking Style and Self-Directed Learning among Nursing and Midwifery Students in Mashhad. Research in Medical Education. 2012; 4(2):53-62. [In Persian]
  10. Najafi M, Motaghi Z, Nasrabadi HB, Nosrati K. Debate learning method and its implications for the formal education system. Educational Research and Reviews. 2016;11(6): 211-8. doi:10.5897/ERR2015.2316.
  11. Raut S, Shreechakradhar M, More SR, Rathod VS, Gujar VM, Nardele VD, et al. Developing competencies of medical students using group discussion as TL method. J Dental Med Sci. 2014;13(1): 24-7. doi:10.9790/0853-13142427.
  12. Karimi S, Javadi M, Yaghoobi M, Fathalizade S, Molayi M. Need assessment of continuing professional education of health care management graduates, working in the Medical University of Isfahan & related health centers. Health Information Management. 2011; 8(1):61-70. [In Persian]
  13. Pourami Rashishi A, Kazemi S, Shokouhi M. Comparison of the effect of lecture teaching methods, group discussion and educational package on the level of knowledge about drug abuse in high school male students in Bushehr. Journal of Bushehr Police Science. 2018; 9(33): 97-115. [In Persian]
  14. Yamani N, Shakour M, Ehsanpour S. Educational needs of reproductive health students: A Delphi study. The Journal of Medical Education and Development. 2013; 8(2): 65-76. [In Persian]
  15. Esfahankalate S, Hasheminsab M, Esfahankalate A. Esfahankalate, Effect of lecture and group discussion on improving the nutritional knowledge of pregnant women in Gorgan. J Res Dev Nurs Midw. 2014. 11(2): 31-7. [In Persian]
  16. Mutrofin M, Degeng I, Ardhana IW, Setyosari P. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes. Journal of Education and Practice. 2017; 8(9): 203-9.
  17. Arias A, Scott R, Peters O, McClain E, Gluskin AH. Educational outcomes of small-group discussion versus traditional lecture format in dental students’ learning and skills acquisition. J Dent Educ. 2016;80(4):459-65. doi:10.1002/j.0022-0337.2016.80.4.tb06104.x. [PMid:27037454].
  18. Karimi M, Tavakol Kh, Alavi M. Comparition of Two Educational Methods of Lecture and Group Discussion on Learning and Reminding of Nursing Students. Avicenna J Nurs Midwifery Care. 2006; 13 (2) :15-25. [In Persian]
  19. Johnston JM, Schooling M, Leung GM. A randomized-controlled trial of two educational modes for undergraduate evidence-based medicine learning in Asia. BMC Med Educ. 2009;9:63. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-63. [PMID:19785777]. [PMCID: PMC2761870].
  20. Hekmatpou D, Seraji M, Ghaderi T, Ghahremani M, Naderi M. Comparison of Group Discussion and Lecture Method in Students’ Learning and Satisfaction of Life Instructions Unit. Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2013; 7(S1):10-6. [In Persian]
  21. Rawas H, Bano N, Alaidarous S. Comparing the effects of individual versus group face-to-face class activities in flipped classroom on student's test performances. Health Professions Education. 2020; 6(2): 153-61.
  22. Cendan JC, Silver M, Ben-David K. Changing the student clerkship from traditional lectures to small group case-based sessions benefits the student and the faculty. J Surg Educ. 2011;68(2):117-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2010.09.011. [PMID: 21338967].