Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Sc. in Immunology, Lecturer, Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

2 M.Sc. in Nursing, Lecturer, Department of of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 M.Sc. in Midwifery, Instructor, Department of of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

4 M.Sc. in Educational Sciences, Lecturer, Department of Educational Sciences, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


  Background & Objective: Identification of the role of factors such as selfesteem and studying approaches in academic achievement could lead to improved educational programming and reinforced teaching output This study was performed to determine the relationship of academic achievement with selfesteem and approaches to studying among university students   Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 147 nursing and midwifery students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences Iran in 2012 The mean of grade point average (GPA) during the past semester was considered as the index for academic achievement Data collection was performed using the approaches and study skills inventory for students (ASSIST) and the Rosenberg selfesteem scale (RSES) Data were analyzed using independent sample ttest and the Pearson correlation coefficient and the SPSS statistical software   Results: The mean selfesteem score of university students was 3745 (from a maximum of 50) and its correlation with academic achievement was 0166 (P = 0046) The mean score of the surface approach to studying was 5340 (from a maximum of 80) and its correlation with academic achievement was 0432 (P = 0001) The mean score of the deep approach to studying was 5340 (from a maximum of 80) and its correlation with academic achievement was 0432 (P = 0592)   Conclusion: Studying approaches and selfesteem can have an important role in the academic achievement of university students Thus it may be possible to promote the academic achievement of students by improving their selfesteem and guiding them to use appropriate approaches to studying


  1. Sanaienasab H, Rashidi Jahan H, Saffari M. Influential factors on academic achievement of university students. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences. 2013; 5(4): 243-49. [In Persian]
  2. Tuzandehjany H, Sedighei K, Nejat H, Kamalpour N. The relative effectiveness of cognitive training -behavioral self-esteem and social adjustment of students. Knowledge Rese Appl Psychol. 2008; 16: 41-56. [In Persian]
  3. Mattick K, Dennis I, Bligh J. Approaches to learning and studying in medical students: validation of a revised inventory and its relation to student characteristics and performance. Med Educ. 2004; 38(5): 535–43.
  4. Yonker JE. The relationship of deep and surface study approaches on factual and applied test-bank multiple-choice question performance. Assessment & Evaluation High Education. 2011; 36(6):673-86.
  5. Shakurnia AH, GHaforian M, Elhampour H. Approaches to study and learning of students in Ahvaz JundiShapur University of Medical Sciences. Jundishapur Sci Med J. 2013; 11(6):577-86. [In Persian]
  6. Shakurnia A, Alijani H, Najjar S, Komeilisani H, Elhampour H. The effect of two assessment methods on exam preparation and study strategies: multiple choice and essay questions. Iran J Med Educ. 2013: 13(4): 306-18. [In Persian]
  7. Nejat N, Kouhestani HR, Rezaei K. Effect of concept mapping on approach to learning among nursing students. Hayat. 2011; 17(2): 22-31. [In Persian]
  8. Blake FJ. (dissertation). Self-esteem, learning style, achievement and socio-economic status of primary school children. South Australia: The University of Adelaide; 1989.
  9. Hosseini M, Dejkam M, Mirlashari J. Correlation between academic achievement and self–esteem in rehabilitation students in Tehran University of Social welfare & rehabilitation. Iran J Med Educ. 2007: 7(1): 137-41. [In Persian]
  10. Andrew S, Vialle W. Nursing students' self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic performance in science. Nursing Times. 1998; 76(10): 422-76.
  11. Mirzaei Alavijeh M, Rajaei N, Rezaei F, Hasanpoor S, Pirouzeh R, Babaei Borzabadi M. Comparison of selfesteem, locus of control and their relationship with university students’ educational status at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences- Yazd. J Med Educ Dev. 2012; 7(1): 58-70. [In Persin]
  12. Zare P, Riasati MJ; The relationship between language learning anxiety, self-esteem, and academic level among Iranian EFL learners. Pertanika J Soc Sci Hum. 2012; 20 (1): 219 -25.
  13. Lin YR, Shiah IS, Chang YC, Lai TJ, Wang KY, Chou KR. Evaluation of an assertiveness training program on nursing and medical students' assertiveness, self-esteem and interpersonal communication satisfaction. Nurse Educ Today. 2004; 24(8): 656-65.
  14. Naderi H, Abdullah  R,  Aizan  HT,  Sharir  J, Kumar  V.  Self-esteem,  gender  and  academic achievement  of  undergraduate  students.  Am  J Sci  Res. 2009;  3:26-37.
  15. Tamannaifar MR, Sedighi  Arfai  F,  Salami Mohammadabadi  F.  Correlation  between emotional  intelligence,  self-concept  and  selfesteem  with  academic  achievement.  Iran  J Educ  Strategies.  2010;3(3):  121-26.  [In Persian]
  16. Zare N, Daneshpajooh  F,  Amini  M,  Razeghi M,  Fallahzadeh  M.  The  relationship  between self-esteem,  general  health  and  academic achievement  in  students  of  Shiraz  University of  Medical  Sciences.  Iran  J  Med  Educ.  2007; 7(1):  59-66. [In Persian]
  17. Khazaeenezhad B,  Talebinezhad  MR.  Selfesteem  and  cognitive-affective  reading-based courses  in  an  EFL  context.  IJAL.  2009;  12(2): 69-83. 
  18. Krejcie RV,  Morgan  DW.  Determining sample  size  for  research  activities.  Educ Psychol  Meas.  1970;  30(3):607-10-7.
  19. Entwistle N, Tait  H,  McCune  V.  Patterns  of response  to  an  approach  to  studying  inventory across  contrasting  groups  and  contexts.  Eur  J Psychol  Educ.  2000;  15(1):  33-48.
  20. Byrne M, Flood  B,  Willis  P.  Validation  of  the Approaches  and  Study  Skills  Inventory  for Students  (ASSIST)  using  accounting  students in  the  USA  and  Ireland:  a  research  note. Accounting  Educ. 2004;  13(4):  449-59.
  21. Saif A,  Fathabadi  J.  Different  Approaches  to Study  and  the  Relationship  of  Study  Skills with  Academic  Achievement,  Gender  and Educational Experience of University Students.  Daneshvar.  2009;  33:  29-40.  [In Persian]
  22. Rajabi G,  Bohroul  N.  Assessment  of  validity and  reliability  of  Rosenberg  self-esteem  scale among  students  in  Ahvaz  Shahid  Chamran University.  New  Educ  Approaches.  2007; 2(8):33-48. [In Persian]
  23. Moulavi P,  Mohammadnia  H,  Arab  R, Rasoulzadeh  B,  Derakhshani  F.  Evaluation  of effecting  factors  in  reduction  of  educational motive  of  students  in  Ardabil  University  of medical  sciences.  Pakistan  J  Social  Sci.  2007; 4(1):98-101.
  24. Hasanvand B,  khaledian  M.  The  relationship of  emotional  intelligence  with  self-esteem  and academic  progress.  Int  J  Psychol  Behav  Sci. 2012, 2(6):  231-6.
  25. Aryana M. Relationship  between  self-esteem and  academic  achievement  amongst  preUniversity students. 2010;10(20):2474-7. J Applied Sci.
  26. Barkhordary M,  Jalalmanesh  S,  Mahmodi  M. The  Relationship  between  Critical  Thinking Disposition  and  Self  Esteem  in  Third  and Forth  Year  Bachelor  Nursing  Students.  Iran  J Med Educ. 2009;  9  (1):13-9. [In Persian]
  27. Baumeister RF,  Campbell  JD,  Krueger  JI, Vohs KD.  Does  high  self-esteem  casuse  better performance,  interpersonal  success,  happiness or  healthier  lifestyles?  Psychol  Sci  Public Interest. 2003;  4(1):1-44.
  28. Hosseini Tabatabaei F,  Ghadimi  Moghaddam M.  The  study  reseans  of  girls  academic achievement  compare  to  boys  in  Razavi, Northern  and  Southern  Khorasan.  Knowledge Res  Educ Sci. 2007;  15:  119-47. [In Persian] 
  29. Joseph, R,  Markus  HR,  Tafarodi  RW.  Gender and  Self-  esteem.  J  Personality  and  Social Psychology, 1992;  63(  3):  391-402.
  30. Kamali  S,  Jafari  E,  Fathi  A.  Correlation Between  Academic  Achievement  and  SelfEsteem  in  Students  of  Zanjan  Faculty  of Nursing  and  Midwifery  1388.  EDC  journal, 2009;  2  (2):17-24
  31. Wan Chik  WZ,  Salamonson  Y,  Everett  B, Ramjan  LM,  Attwood  N,  Weaver  R,  et  al. Gender  difference  in  academic  performance of  nursing  students  in  a  Malaysian universitycollege.  Int  Nurs  Rev.  2012; 59(3):387-93.
  32. Sheard M. Hardiness  commitment,  gender  and age differentiate university academic performance.  Br  J  Educ  Psychol.  2009; 79(1):189-204.
  33. Manzar S.  Gender  differences  in  academic performance  among  Arab  medical  students. Saudi  Med  J.2004;  25(11):1744-5.