Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Student, Department of Educational Management, Sari Branch Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2 Professor of Human Sciences Faculty, Sari Branch Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Human Sciences Faculty, Sari Branch Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran


Background: One way to make change in the field of education is through future studies. Considering the role of future studies in building a better future for the country’s medical education and health system, the establishment of the required bases in medical education is necessary.
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the dimensions and components of future studies in the educational system of a university of medical sciences.
Methods: In this grounded-theory study, the statistical population included expert and knowledgeable faculty members with an experience of delivering services as directors, principals, and deputies of the faculties of Babol University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran. In-depth and exploratory individual interviews were held through a questionnaire containing six standard items within October and December 2018.The interview process was completed based on the data saturation law, and the required conclusion was drawn with 10 samples.
Results: A questionnaire with 50 components in three main dimensions, including infrastructure (25 components), management and faculty members (9 components), and outputs (16 components), was designed. Moreover, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed.
Conclusion: It is time to build necessary capacities for future studies in the universities of medical sciences and provide the possibility for extensive participation and support of researchers and faculty members in future studies programs in the field of medical education and health research in Iran. The dimensions and components obtained from this study can be helpful in this regard.


  1. Pedram A, Jalalivand A. Introducting to futures studies, vol 1, 1st ed. Tehran: Training and Research Institute of Defense Industry; 2013.[In Persian]
  2. Heidari AH. Futures resrarch. Ketabmah. 2014; 17(4): 70-8. [In Persian]
  3. Tishehyar M. Future research in strategic studies, 2nd ed. Tehran: Research Institute of Strategic Studies; 2012.
  4. Malekifar A. New thinking for a new millennium, (translation). Slaughter R. 2nd ed. Tehran: Training and Research Institute of Defense Industry; 2016. [In Persian]
  5. Majd Rahimabadi O, Fath Elahi A. An introduction of foresight: a look into initial experience of Japan, Germany and Iran. Roshd-E-Fanavari. 2009; 5(17); 63-70. [In Persian]
  6. Defense Education and Research Industries Institute. Encyclopedia of Futures Research. 2st ed.Tehran: Training and Research Institute of Defense Industry; 2012. [In Persian]
  7. Encyclopedia of Futures Research. 1st ed. Tehran: Training and Research Institute of Defense Industry; 2010. [In Persian]
  8. Malekifar A. Futuring alphabet: the science and art of future exploring. 3rd ed. Tehran: Karaneh Elm; 2017.
  9. Sharifi T, Tatari M, Sedaghat F, Kalhor R, Mohammadi A. Exploring the Relationship between the students' futuristic skill competence and the quality of students' learning experiences. Iran J Med Educ. 2019; 19:483-93. [In Persian]
  10. Pourabbasi A, Kheiry Z, Naghvai Alhosseini S, Akbari H, Larijani B. Medical Education Policy Making in Iran; a review of 40-years experiences. Teb va Tazkiye. 2019; 27(4): 215-23. [In Persian]
  11. Mahdi R. Futurology in Higher Education: Strategies and Consequences of the Compatible University with Environment and Society. Journal of Management and Development Process. 2015; 28(1):31-54. [In Persian]
  12. Taghipour Karan H, Rezapour Darvish F. Futures studies a new approach in promotion of educational indicators with an emphasis on global trends. [cited 2013 Apr 7]. Available from:
  13. Aminbeidokhti AA, Rastgar A, Nameni A. A future study on higher education approaches in training human capital: A plausible scenario for 2030. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education. 2015; 21(3):31-55. [In Persian]
  14. Ayatollah Khamenei SA. Strategic statement of the Iran’s leader in the 40th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution of Iran. [cited 2019 Feb 13]. Available from: [In Persian]
  15. Sahebzadeh M. Foresight is a fundamental necessity for the realization of scientific authority in the medical sciences education. Iran J Med Educ. 2018; 18:403-4. [In Persian]
  16. Munck R, McConnell G. University strategic planning and the foresight/futures approach: An Irish case study. Society for college and University planning (SCUP). Plann Higher Educ. 2009; 38(1): 31-40.
  17. Soleimani Mehr H, Houshyari Afin, M. Objectives and Strategies of Foresight in Education. Proceedings of the 3rd National Conference on Futures Studies; 2015 Jan 29; Tehran, Iran. 2015.
  18. Strong KE, Bishop PC. Case Study: Futurizing the K-12 Teaching Practice. Journal of Futures Studies. 2011, 15(4): 181-8.
  19. Bell W. Foundation of future studies: History, purposes and knowledge. 1st ed. London, United Kingdom: Routledge; 2003.
  20. Pourabbasi A, Emami-Razavi S, Kheiry Z, Naghavi Alhosseini S, Larijani B. Explaining the Position of the “Second Step of the Revolution” Statement Among upper documents of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Implementation of its Concepts in the Medical Education System. Teb va Tazkiye. 2019; 28(3): 1-10. [In Persian]
  21. Strategy Committee. Strategic objective for the University of Oslo in 2020. Oslo: University of Oslo; 2015.
  22. Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution Collection, Approved of the 550 th session, 16.11.2004. 1st ed, Tehran: Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution Publications, 2018. [In Persian]
  23. Naserabadi Z. Futures studies. 1st ed. Tehran: Training and Research Institute of Defense Industry; 2010.
  24. Jouybari L, Araghian Mojarad F, Sanagoo A. Future Studies: Tomorrow Might Be Quite Different from Today. J Med Educ Dev. 2017; 9(24):1-3. [In Persian]
  25. Jalalian N. Futures studies and strategic thinking. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Management Challenges and Solutions; 2016 Apr 10-13; Shiraz, Iran. 2016. [In Persian]
  26. Amiri Savad Roudbari A, Marzban Shirkharkolaei, Asgharzadeh Zaferani M. Futures studies and future organizations. Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Futures Studies. 2012 Dec 24-26; Tehran, Iran. 2012. [In Persian]
  27. Vaezi SK, Ghomian MM, Vaghfi SH. Futures Study in Humanities with Knowledge Management Approach; Considerations, Achievements and Effects. Quarterly Journal of Public Organzations Management. 2017; 5(3): 31-46. [In Persian]
  28. Marzooghi R, Heidari E, Heidari M. A Study of the Relationship between Qualities of learning Experience and Development of Students Futures Research Ability. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2014; 11(2): 131-8. [In Persian]
  29. Ashraf Nazari A, Mahrough F, Abbasi Khoshkar A. Futures Research Methodology of political science and international relations: Relying on the method of Scenario Writing. Political and International Approaches. 2014; 6(1): 9-42.
    [In Persian]
  30. Minsky C. 25 US universities with the most international students. [cited 24 Nov 2015]. Available From:
  31. Aminbeidokhti A A, Nameni A. Providing a model for medium-term futures studies in educational planning field. Scientific Journal Management System. 2015; 4(8): 11-33.
    [In Persian]
  32. Tabatabai S. The Necessity of Futures Studies in Medical Education and health System in Iran. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2015; 12(2): 433-5. [In Persian]
  33. Haghdoost AA. Prospective Policy in the health sector in iran; The status and a framework for future. Proceedings of the 2nd National Futures Studies Conference; 2013 Feb 10-14; Tehran, Iran. 2013. [In Persian]
  34. Mahmoudzadeh A, Mahboubfar MR. Futures studies in IRAN and challenges facing the development goals of 2025. Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Futures Studies. 2012 Sep 10-13; Tehran, Iran. 2012.
  35. Stukalina Y. Management of the educational environment: the context in which strategic decisions are made. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013; 99(2): 1054-62. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.579.
  36. Abeles DP. Do we know the future of the University? On the Horizon, 2006; 14(9): 35-42. doi:10.1108/10748120610674003.
  37. Scott P. Policy Process in Higher Education. In: Teixeira P., Shin J. (eds) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions. Dordrecht: Springer; 2018. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_151-1.
  38. Altbach, P. Higher Education and the WTO: Globalization Run Amok. International Higher Education, 2015, 23(1), 2-4. doi:10.6017/ihe.2001.23.6593
  39. De Waal AA. The characteristics of a high performance organization. Business Strategy Series. 2007; 8(3): 179-85. doi:10.1108/17515630710684178.
  40. Coates J, Durance P, Godet M. Strategic foresight issue: introduction. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2010; 77(9); 1423-25. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2010.08.001.
  41. Hoseini Moghadam M, Bashiri H, Heidarzadeh A, Khoshrang H, Dadgaran I. Futures Driven Model of Scientific Excellency, Case Study: Gilan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Iran Future Studies. 2019; 4(1): 171-205.
  42. Masini EB. How to Teach Futures Studies: Some Experiences. J Futures Stud. 2011; 15(4): 111 –20.
  43. Freed PE, Mclaughlin DE. Future thinking: Preparing Nurses to Think for Tomorrow. Nurs Educ Perspect. May-Jun 2011;32(3):173-8. doi: 10.5480/1536-5026-32.3.173. [PMID: 21834379]