Strides in Development of Medical Education

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. in Curriculum Development, School of Education, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2 Ph.D. in Curriculum Development, Professor, Department of Educational Planning, Health Management and Economic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Educational Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, School of Education, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

4 Ph.D. in Curriculum Development, Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

5 Specialist in Febrile and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

6 Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background & Objective: Hidden curriculum is one of the new topics presented by scholars of curriculum development during recent years In this study the criteria for selecting a supervisor were studied through experiences gained by PhD students Methods: This research is a qualitative and a phenomenological study The study participants consisted of 54 graduated PhD students from both medical and nonmedical state and Azad universities Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi method Moreover simple random sampling method was used Thus the present study focused on the hidden experiences of PhD students on selecting a supervisor Results: In this study 12 main categories were extracted from 123 common factors of this investigation These categories consisted of behavioral and ethical characteristics executive positions scientific positions being wellknown or famous and having access to supervisors skill and mastery in research and statistics specialty and expertise in a specific field access to senior students and limitations and constraints gender supportive ability of supervisors and the anticipating the future Conclusion: The results showed that hidden factors such as ethical and behavioral characteristics of supervisors or professors their academic and scientific ranks governing laws on the universities guidelines and regulations of the universities informal networks and the possible supports and limitations can affect the selection of a supervisor


  1. Mehrmohamadi M. Curriculum. Perspective, approaches and visions advice. Mashhad: Razavi Press; 2008: 464-73. [In Persian]
  2. Yarmohammadian MH. The principles of curriculum. Tehran: Memorial Book; 2007: 18-31. [In Persian]
  3. Maleki H. Curriculum development (action). Mashhad: Mensaje Pensamient; 2012: 84-8. [In Persian]
  4. Ghoorchian NG. Analysis of the hidden curriculum, a new discussion of the education system in unknown dimensions. Quarterly J Res Planning in Higher Educ 2010; 1: 48-68. [In Persian]
  5. Fathi Vajargah K .The identity of the new curriculum. Tehran: Abyzh; 2007:75-81. [In Persian]
  6. Bozorg H, Khakbaz AS. Hidden supervisor: the emergent curriculum of advising graduate students thesis (case study:training science course). Curriculum Planning Knowledge & Research in Educational Sciences 2013; 10(9): 38-50. [In Persian]
  7. Mossalanejad L, Behbehani M. The role of teachers in shaping the hidden curriculum: A Qualitative Study. Strides Dev Med Educ 2013; 10(2): 130-41. [In Persian]
  8. Safaee Movahed S, Attaran M, Tajik Smaeily A. Tacit norms in the selection of supervisors revisited: a phenomenological study. Journal of Higher Education Curriculum Studies 2010; 1(1): 37-9. [In Persian]
  9. Attaran M, Zeinabadi H, Tulaby HR. Relationship between supervisor and doctoral student in the writing of a case study. J Higher Education Curriculum Studies 2008:1(1):9-37. [In Persian].
  10. Fathi Vajargah K, Arefi M, JaliliNiya F. Hidden curriculum involved in graduate thesis at Shahid Beheshti University. J Higher Education Curriculum Studies 2009: 1(1):96- 118. [In Persian]
  11. Evans C, Stevenson K. The learning experiences of international doctoral students with particular reference to nursing students: A literature review. Int J Nurs Stud 2010; 47(2):239-50.
  12. Vilkinas T. An Exploratory Study of the Supervision of Ph.D/ ResearchStudents’ Theses. Innovative Higher Education 2008; 32(5): 297-311.
  13. Bradbury CJ.  Unity  and  Detachment:  A Discourse  Analysis  of  Doctoral  Supervision. International  Journal  of  Qualitative  Methods 2007;  6(4):  81-91.
  14. Margolis E.  Hiding  and  Outing  the Curriculum.  In  The  HiddenCurriculum  in Higher  Education.  London:  Rutledge;  2001.
  15. Townsend M,  Barbara  B.  Is  there  a  hidden curriculum  in  higher  education  doctoral programs?  Paper  presented  at  the  Annual Meeting  of  the  Association  for  the  Study  of Higher  Education.  1995:  2-5.
  16. Pinar  WF.  Understanding  Curriculum.  (With William  Reynolds  ,  Patrick  Stattery,  and  Peter Taubman). New York:  Peter  Lang;  1995
  17. Pyett  PM.  Validation  of  qualitative  research  in the  "real  world".  Qual  Health  Res.  2003;  1 3(8):1170-9.
  18. Kirk  JL,  Miller  M.  Reliability  and  Validity  in QualitativeReserch.California:  SAGE; 1986.
  19. Ghoorchian  NG,  Tansaz  F.  Curriculum development  process:  as  a  special  filed  from ancient  world  to  today's  world.  Tehran: Research  Institute  for  Higher  Education Planning;  1995.  [In  Persian]
  20. Hundert  EM,  Hafferty  FW,  Christakis  DA. Characteristics  of  the  informal  curriculum  and trainees' ethical 1996:71(6):624-42.   choices. Acad  Med
  21. D'Eon M,  Lear  N,  Turner  M,  Jones  C; Canadian  Association  of  Medical  Education. Perils  of  the  hidden  curriculum  revisited.  Med Teach.  2007;  29(4):295-6.
  22. Gazi  Tabatabai  M,  Dadhyr  A.  The  Biases moral  norms  in  academic  research.  J  Tabriz Univ  Med  Sci  2000;  25(4):187-226.  [In Persian]
  23. Graves CW.  The  Levels  of  Human  Existence and  their  Relation  to  Welfare  Problems,  paper delivered. Proceedings  at  the  Annual Conference,  Virginia  State  Department  of Welfare  and  Distribution;  1970  May  6; Roanoke,  Virginia.  1970.
  24. Armstrong SJ,  Allison  CW,  Hayes  J.  The effects of  cognitive  style  on  research supervision:  A  study  of  student–supervisor dyads  in  management  education.  Academy Manag  Learn  Educ. 2004;  3(1):  41-63.
  25. Armstrong  S,  Allison  CW,  Hayes  J.  The implications  of  cognitive  style  for  the management of student-supervisor relationships.  Educ  Psychol.  1997;  17(1-2): 209-17.
  26. Armstrong  M,  Shanker  V.  The  supervision  of undergraduate  research:  Student  perceptions  of the  supervisor  role.  Stud  High  Educ.  1983; 8(2):  177  –  83.
  27. Graves  CW.  The  Levels  OF  Human  Existence and  their  Relation  to  Welfare  Problems. Proceedings  of  Coference  of  Virginia  State Department  of  Welfare  and  Distribution;  2011 May 25;  Roanoke, Virginia.  2011.
  28. Heinrich  KT.  Loving  partnerships:  Dealing with  sexual  attraction  and  power  in  doctoral advisement  relationships. J  Higher  Educ.  1991; 62(5):  514-38.
  29. Conrad  L,  Phillips  E.  From  isolation  to collaboration: A  positive  change  for postgraduate  women?  High  Educ.  1995;  30(3); 313-  22.
  30. Donald  J,  Saroyan  A,  Denison  BD.  (1995). Graduate  Student  Supervision  Policies  and Procedures:  A  Case  Study  of  Issues  and Factors  Affecting  Graduate  Study.  Canadian  J High  Educ. 1995;  25(3):  71-92.
  31. .Margolis  E.  The  Hidden  Curriculum  in  Higher Education.  New York:  Routledge;  2003.
  32. Drysdale  MTB.  Dyad  Interdependence:  An Examination of Relationship in the Student/Supervisor Graduate Education. Proceedings  of  the  64th  world  Conference  of the  Canadian  Psychological  Association;  2003 Jun 12-14;  Ontario, Canada. 2003.
  33. Fazeli N.  Adaptive  study  on  the  causes  of ineffective teaching  in  the  university. Anthropology. 2003;  1(3):  93-132. [In Persian]
  34. Attaran M,  Zein  Abadi  H,  Tulaby  Hassan  R. Relationship  between  supervisor  and  doctoral student  in  the  writing  of  a  case  study.  J  Higher Education  Curriculum  Studies.  2008:1(1):9-37. [In Persian]
  35. Ives G,  Rowley  G.  (2005).  Supervisor selection  or  allocation  and  continuity  of supervision:  Ph.D.  students'  progress  and outcomes.  Studies  in  Higher  Education.  2005; 30(5):  535-56.
  36. Lindgreen  A,  Palmer  R,  Vanhamme  J. Beverland  M.  Finding  and  Choosing  a Supervisor.  The  Marketing  Review.  2002; 3(2):  147-66.
  37. Ray  S.  Selecting  a  doctoral  dissertation supervisor:  analytical  hierarchy  approach  to the  multiple  criteria  problem.  Int  J  Doctoral Studies. 2007;  2(1):  23-32.
  38. Grevholm  B,  Persson  LE,  Peter  W.  A  dynamic model  for  education  of  doctoral  students  and guidance  of  supervisors  in  research  groups. Educational  Studies  in  Mathematics.  2005; 60(2):  173-9.