Background One of the most effective ways to prevent substance abuse is to promote addiction knowledge in influential social groups. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the current status of substance abuse education in medical universities of Iran in order to develop a targeted curriculum on drug abuse and include it in the curriculum of medical students. Methods In this descriptive library study, documentary (library) method and checklists were used for data collection. In order to identify the extent to which the existing units and courses deal with substance abuse and with the subject of addiction, the announced titles for active disciplines of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education were reviewed in 2017 - 2018. Results Of the 7685.5 units taught in different faculties of medical sciences universities in all disciplines except clinical residency programs.106.1% (optional or mandatory) are related to substance abuse. Of these, 49.5 units were related to the pathophysiology, treatment and pharmacology of substances, and 57.6 units covered topics related to prevention strategies and pathologies of substance abuse. Conclusions Despite the high importance of substance abuse issues for medical sciences students, a general unit for prevention and familiarity with the physical, psychological and social consequences of substance abuse does not exist in most of these disciplines. Therefore, it is recommended that studies be conducted to provide specific courses related to the substance abuse phenomenon or to consider substance abuse topics in the courses related to this subject.